Scientific works: what they are, types and tips on how to write them

Scientific work is in the routine of every student, whether at school or at university. In undergraduate or postgraduate courses.

Just stop to think. Probably someday, you’ve already had to read a scientific article, write a review, or present a poster, right?

Some scientific works serve to complete steps. These are called Course Completion Works.

Others, you produce during graduation, such as reviews, abstracts, posters and scientific articles.

But it is very probable that his first contact with a scientific work happened back in the days of school.

See how strange …

Although we grew up having contact with some genres – such as the abstract – it is very common for students to report difficulties in writing scientific papers when they arrive at college.

Why does this happen?

The big question is that at the Academy, the level of complexity, formatting and purpose of these scientific works change.

After all, academic works are the instrument of communication between students, teachers and researchers.

That is, in the academic universe, everyone needs to “speak the same language”.

Each country or region usually adopts a formatting model to precisely facilitate this communication between researchers.

Among the best known models are ABNT, Chicago, APA and Vancouver.

So the summaries you used to write “your way” will now need to be written according to the language of a particular scientific community.

To facilitate their understanding, I decided to gather some types of academic papers and explain a little the difference between them. In this article, you will find:

  • What are scientific works?
  • 10 types of scientific papers
  • Tips to start writing academic papers
  • Models of academic papers to download (throughout the text)
  • What are scientific works?

Scientific works are those that circulate in the academic environment.

They serve to disseminate ideas and information in a standardized and systematized way, aiming at a better understanding among the researchers.

The Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT), in NBR 14274, specifies the general principles for the elaboration of academic works (theses, dissertations and others), with a view to presenting them to the institution (bank, teacher examining committee, others).

Types of Academic Works: Get to Know Some

As I said, it is common for you to come across various types of scientific work throughout your academic career.

It is therefore essential to know and differentiate them. This way, you will know how to produce a text that is appropriate to each situation.

Research project

It is a specific and detailed proposal of the work to be developed, with the aim of defining an issue and the way in which it will be researched.

It is necessary to define the main questions of study as a way to approach reality.

In order for the research project to be well developed, it is necessary to answer some questions and follow some steps:

  • Introduction
  • Theme – What to search?
  • Delimitation of the specific theme or theme;
  • Justification – Why research?
  • Problem;
  • Hypothesis;

General and specific goals – What to research?

Methodology – How to search?

Timeline – When to search?

References – By whom?

Download now a Research Project template already formatted with ABNT standards and focus on the most important: the content of your work.

summary

The abstract is the scientific work that brings, in accordance with ABNT NBR 6028, the concise presentation of the relevant points of a document.

In the academic field, it is common to see abstracts as a mandatory pre-textual element of scientific articles. This is the so-called simple summary.

In the simple summary, you should highlight the main objectives, methods employed, results and conclusions, allowing the reader to choose whether or not to read that text in its entirety.

Abstracts can be critical (when written by experts), indicative (based on the original work and indicate key elements of it) or informative (work with more information).

There is also the extended abstract, which is more extensive and establishes comparisons with other authors’ contents.

Review

A lot of people (really!) Usually confuse review with summary.

The review, in addition to synthesizing the most relevant aspects of a document (as summarized), also make a critical analysis of the work.

This criticism usually appears in the last paragraph or, in other cases, throughout the text.

The review also brings, in this order:

the identification of the work,

information about the author of the work analyzed,

summary of the ideas discussed,

conclusion of the author,

appreciation (merit of the work)

finally, whether or not you recommend reading it.

Report

The report, different from the review, does not allow analysis or opinions.

It is a document that aims to inform the progress of a research, as well as field or experimental classes.

Educational development agencies, such as CNPq, often request these reports from researchers.

Enclosure

To register and store information and facilitate access to content, the file is used. He identifies and summarizes the work.

Great ally when it comes to writing articles, the fiches can be developed in three ways:

1 – Content: It highlights the idea of ​​the author of the work and its justifications on the subject.

2- Bibliographic Fact Sheets: In addition to the synthesis, a descriptive analysis of the work must also be done.

3 – Script of citations: It registers citations of the work. The quotations must be transcribed as original content and must be enclosed in quotation marks.

Poster

The poster is a type of work that is very present in academic events, such as congresses, symposia and seminars.

It serves to present the results or the progress of scientific research.

Also known as billboards or banners, they present the content of the research succinctly and objectively, dividing it into sections.

The scientific poster has many visual elements, such as tables, graphics and images.

It is worth noting that the formatting of the poster usually varies from event to event. So, in the doubt, consult the standards of the event that you will attend!

Scientific article

According to the scholars Alceu Cavalhieri and Sérgio Engerroff, scientific article is the part of a publication with declared authorship that presents and discusses ideas, methods, techniques, processes and results in the most diverse areas of knowledge.

ABNT’s NBR 6022 says that there are two types of articles: revision and originals.

Review articles are part of a publication that summarizes, analyzes, and discusses information that has already been published. Original article, in turn, is part of a publication that presents original themes or approaches.

Publishing scientific articles is ideal for researchers who want to increase authority in scientific circles.

Completion of course work

The monograph is the work presented at the end of an undergraduate or specialization, as a way to consolidate the knowledge acquired in that area of ​​study.

Therefore, the monographs are also known as completion work.

In addition, educational institutions adopt the TCC 1 and 2 disciplines in the course hours as a way to guide and support students during the research.

Once written, the student should defend his / her CBT to an examining board (usually composed of teachers, market professionals and specialists).

With the approval of the TCC and completed the full course workload, the student is able to take his / her graduation or specialization diploma.

Masters dissertation

The dissertation is the scientific work developed to obtain the title of master.

According to the ABNT, the dissertation represents the result of an experimental work or exposition of a retrospective scientific study, with a single theme and well defined in its extension, with the objective of gathering, analyzing and interpreting information

Elaborated under the coordination of a supervisor (doctor), the dissertation should show the literary knowledge about the subject and the systematization capacity of the candidate.

Doctoral thesis

The thesis, in turn, is the academic work done when one intends to obtain the title of doctor.

It represents the result of an experimental work or the exposition of a scientific study of single subject and well delimited.

It should be developed on the basis of original research and should contribute significantly to the area in question.

The thesis is also done under the coordination of a counselor (who needs to be a doctor).

Because it is more complex, it is usually done in about 4 years.